Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. By saying “they say i say citation pdf”, most people form their mouths into what appears to be a smile-like shape. As this practice became ingrained into modern western culture, it has taken on the simple role of a final warning before a photograph is taken. Often subjects will simply use the phrase “say cheese” as a cue to enter their final pose and to smile, neglecting to actually say “cheese”.
In the late 19th century, different aesthetic and behavioral norms required keeping the mouth small, which led to photographers using the phrase “say prunes”. However, the word “say” is almost always dropped from the phrase, resulting in the phrase simply being “Cheese. The pronunciation of this word is notably similar to that of the English word “cheese”. Wurst” are used, mainly to make children laugh for the picture. The English word “cheese” is also used, mostly by younger people.
The English word “cheese” is also often used. This page was last edited on 8 December 2017, at 01:52. Known unknown” and “Known unknowns” redirect here. Unknown known” and “Unknown knowns” redirect here. And if one looks throughout the history of our country and other free countries, it is the latter category that tend to be the difficult ones. They used it as a technique to help people better understand their relationship with themselves as well as others. The term was also commonly used inside NASA.
Kirk Borne, an astrophysicist who was employed as a data scientist at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center at the time, noted in an April 2013 TED talk that he had used the phrase “unknown unknowns” in a talk to personnel at the Homeland Security Transition Planning Office a few days prior to Rumsfeld’s remarks, and speculated that the term may have percolated up to Rumsfeld and other high-ranking officials in the defense department. Known unknowns refers to “risks you are aware of, such as cancelled flights. Unknown unknowns are risks that “come from situations that are so out of this world that they never occur to you. For example, prior to the invention of the personal computer, manufacturers of typewriters probably didn’t foresee the risks to their business. Contemporary usage is largely consistent with the earliest known usages. Site conditions always pose unknowns, or uncertainties, which may become known during construction or operation to the detriment of the facility and possibly lead to damage of the environment or endanger public health and safety.
The risk posed by unknowns is somewhat dependent on the nature of the unknown relative to past experience. This has led me classify unknowns into one of the following two types: 1. Known unknowns result from phenomena which are recognized, but poorly understood. On the other hand, unknown unknowns are phenomena which cannot be expected because there has been no prior experience or theoretical basis for expecting the phenomena.
While the remarks initially led to some ridicule towards the Bush administration in general and Rumsfeld in particular, over time the consensus regarding it has shifted over the years and it now enjoys some level of respect. Although the language may be tortured, the basic point is both valid and important. If Rumsfeld thinks that the main dangers in the confrontation with Iraq were the ‘unknown unknowns’, that is, the threats from Saddam whose nature we cannot even suspect, then the Abu Ghraib scandal shows that the main dangers lie in the “unknown knowns”—the disavowed beliefs, suppositions and obscene practices we pretend not to know about, even though they form the background of our public values. The event has been used in multiple books to discuss risk assessment. In an “Author’s Note” at the start of the book, he expressly acknowledged the source of his memoir’s title and mentioned a few examples of his statement’s prominence, including this Wikipedia article. 2013 biographical documentary about Rumsfeld. In many cases, an unknown to an investigator that is detected in an experiment is actually known in the chemical literature, a reference database, or an internet resource.