These theories differ between the Indian religions, with esoteric Buddhist literature mentioning four Chakras, while esoteric Hindu texts stating seven. In the Kundalini version of yoga, breath exercises focus, in part, thai for beginners textbook pdf mastering and channeling energy through Chakras. Vedic fire altar: “square, circle, triangle, half moon and dumpling”. Vedic literature in many contexts.
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Chakra is a part of the esoteric medieval era theories about physiology and psychic centers that emerged across Indian traditions. This subtle body is energy, while the physical body is mass. The psyche or mind plane corresponds to and interacts with the body plane, and the theory posits that the body and the mind mutually affect each other. The theory grew into extensive elaboration, with some suggesting 88,000 cakras throughout the subtle body. The chakra it considered most important varied between various traditions, but they typically ranged between four and seven. The seven Chakras are arranged along the spinal cord, from bottom to top: 1.
The important chakras are stated in Buddhist and Hindu texts to be arranged in a column along the spinal cord, from its base to the top of the head, connected by vertical channels. The tantric traditions sought to master them, awaken and energize them through various breathing exercises or with assistance of a teacher. The chakra theories of Buddhism and Hinduism differs from the historic Chinese system of meridians in acupuncture. The tantric systems envision it as a continually present, highly relevant and a means to psychic and emotional energy. The practitioner proceeds step by step from perceptible models, to increasingly abstract models where deity and external mandala are abandoned, inner self and internal mandalas are awakened. These ideas are not unique to Buddhist and Hindu traditions. Ideas and practices involving so-called ‘subtle bodies’ have existed for many centuries in many parts of the world.
Virtually all human cultures known to us have some kind of concept of mind, spirit or soul as distinct from the physical body, if only to explain experiences such as sleep and dreaming. To them, they are the parallel dimension of psyche-mind reality that is invisible yet real. The concept of “life energy” varies between the texts, ranging from simple inhalation-exhalation to far more complex association with breath-mind-emotions-sexual energy. These are envisioned as an life energy essence that flows through channels in the subtle body and meet at nodes called chakra. This essence is what vanishes when a person dies, leaving a gross body. Some of it, states this subtle body theory, is what withdraws within when one sleeps.
All of it is believed to be reachable, awake-able and important for an individual’s body-mind health, and how one relates to other people in one’s life. Indian theories, closely associated with emotions, mind, mood, feeling about oneself and feeling for others. The esoteric traditions in Hinduism mention numerous chakras, of which they state seven are most important. This, according to David Gordon White, is one among many systems found in Hindu tantric literature. These texts teach many different Chakra theories. It is an important concept along with yantras, mandalas and kundalini yoga system in its practice. The cakra-based system is a part of the meditative exercises called Laya yoga.
Hinduism also developed texts and practices on Nadi and Chakra systems. According to Geoffrey, these systems were mapped to consciousness, energy or emotion, much like Vajrayana Buddhism. Chakra and energy centers in the body. The esoteric traditions in Buddhism generally teach four chakras. These are the Manipura, the Andhata, the Visuddha and the Usnisa Kamala. However, depending on the meditational tradition, these vary between three and six.
The differences between the two styles, according to Geoffrey, has been that the Tibetan tradition focussed more on “offering rituals to benign deities” already prevalent in Tibet, while the Indic traditions focussed more on the internal practices linked to subtle body concepts. The Chakra in the Tibetan practice are considered psycho-physical centers, each associated with a cosmic Buddha. In the hard drive analogy, the screen is cleared and a file is called up that contains positive, supportive qualities. Tantric practice is said to eventually transform all experience into bliss. The practice aims to liberate from negative conditioning and leads to control over perception and cognition. These dantian play a very similar role to that of chakras.
The lower dantian at or below the navel transforms essence, or jīng, into qì. Traditional spirituality in the Malay Archipelago borrows heavily from Hindu-Buddhist concepts. In Malay and Indonesian metaphysical theory, the chakras’ energy rotates outwards along diagonal lines. Defensive energy emits outwards from the centre line, while offensive energy moves inwards from the sides of the body. This can be applied to energy-healing, meditation, or martial arts.
The Chakras are considered as meditation aids, wherein the yogi progresses from lower located Chakras to the highest Chakra blossoming in the crown of the head reflecting the journey of spiritual ascent. In both the Hindu and Buddhist traditions, the Chakra are visualized with an energy goddess residing dormant in the lowest chakra, and one of the aims is to awaken her within. Hindu systems, the aim is to discover and realize the Shiva within. In esoteric Hinduism and New Age western systems, it is generally considered to be the highest spiritual center and the state of pure consciousness, within which there is neither object nor subject.