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Shorthand writing in hindi pdf

Shorthand writing in hindi pdf, Gregg shorthand is still in use today. Several versions of this system were published.

1978, which simplified it further. Besides these main editions, which were designed for the dictation speeds expected of any shorthand system of the time, a number of simpler, personal-use editions were published from 1924 to 1968. These included “Greghand” in 1935, and “Notehand” in 1960 and 1968. Gregg shorthand uses the same thickness throughout and discriminates between similar sounds by the length of the stroke.

However, he found the angular outlines of Duployan-based systems to be detrimental to speed. Gregg shorthand features cursive strokes which can be naturally blended without obtuse angles. The image on the right shows the strokes of Gregg Shorthand Simplified. The system is written from left to right and the letters are joined. Sample of text from “A Christmas Carol”, published in Gregg shorthand, 1918.

These brief forms are shown on the adjacent image. There are several others not shown, however. Phrasing is another mechanism for increasing the speed of shorthand writing. Based on the notion that lifting the pen between words would have a heavy speed cost, phrasing is the combination of several smaller distinct forms into one outline. Gregg shorthand are divided into groups that very rarely require further notation. In “Anniversary,” short and long vowel sounds for e, a, o and u may be distinguished by a mark under the vowel, a dot for short and a small downward tick for long sounds. Some left-handed shorthand writers have found it more comfortable to write Gregg shorthand from right to left.

This “mirror writing” was practiced by a few people throughout the life of Gregg shorthand. However, left-handed writers can still write Gregg shorthand from left to right with considerable ease. Throughout its history, different forms of Gregg shorthand have been published. All the versions use the same alphabet and basic principles, but they differ in degrees of abbreviation and, as a result, speed. The 1916 version is generally the fastest and most abbreviated version.

Series 90 Gregg has the smallest degree of abbreviation, but it is also generally the slowest standard version of Gregg. Though each version differs in its level of abbreviation, most versions have expert and reporting versions for writers who desire more shortcuts. Five years later, a much better version was published. This version was published in a second edition in 1893, then in a third edition titled “Gregg Shorthand” in 1897. The fourth edition, published in 1902, developed more shortcuts.

In 1929 another version of Gregg shorthand was published. This system reduced the memory load on its learners by decreasing the number of brief forms and removing uncommon prefixes. It was intended to have been published in 1928 on the fortieth anniversary of the system, but it was published a year afterward due to a delay in its production. Gregg Shorthand Simplified was published in 1949.

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This system drastically reduced the number of brief forms that needed to be memorized to only 181. The system was simplified in order to directly address the need of business stenographers, who only needed to produce 100-120 WPM transcription. An abbreviated, simplified edition of our system has been published and accepted for the purpose of training office stenographers, and not necessarily reporters. He also advised, “I do not believe any young student should hesitate to study Simplified for fear it will jeopardize his chances of becoming a reporter.

It is fundamentally the same system as we reporters learned from the Anniversary edition. Once Simplified is learned, the change-over to the reporting style is comparatively simple and can be made by any writer. It was simpler than the Simplified version, and reduced the number of brief forms to 129. For Diamond Jubilee students who wanted to increase speed for reporting, an edition of “Expert” Diamond Jubilee was available to push speeds upward. Although it introduced a couple of new abbreviations and reintroduced some short forms that were missing in Diamond Jubilee, it eliminated several other short forms, and was in the main simpler, longer, and slower than the previous editions.