Selimiye Camii ve Mavi Gökyüzü. Oxford handbook of philosophical theology pdf’tazilites to defend most tenets of the traditionalist doctrine. Sunni “orthodoxy”, traditionalist theology has thrived alongside it, laying rival claims to be the orthodox Sunni faith.
Several terms are used to refer to traditionalist theology. They are used inconsistently and some of them have been subject to criticism. This term is found in a number of reference works. Some authors reject the use of these terms as labels for groups of scholars and prefer to speak of “traditionalist” and “rationalist” tendencies instead. Racha el Omari has used “traditionalist theology” in a way that includes Ash’arism and Maturidism. Binyamin Abrahamov reserves the term “traditionists” for scholars of hadith, distinguishing it from traditionalism as a theological current. However, others note that some Shafi’i scholars also belonged to this theological movement, while some Hanbalites adopted a more rationalist theology.
Henri Lauzière has argued that, while the majority Hanbali creed was sometimes identified as “salafi” in classical-era sources, using the corresponding nouns in this context is anachronistic. Traditionalist theology emerged toward the end of the eighth century CE among scholars of hadith who held the Quran and authentic hadith to be the only acceptable sources of law and creed. Traditionalists were also characterized by their avoidance of all state patronage and by their social activism. Mu’tazilite doctrine that the Qur’an was a created object, which implicitly made is subject to interpretation by caliphs and scholars. Ibn Hanbal led traditionalist resistance to this policy, affirming under torture that the Quran was uncreated and hence coeternal with God. Although Mu’tazilism remained state doctrine until 851, the efforts to impose it only served to politicize and harden the theological controversy.
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The next two centuries saw an emergence of broad compromises in both law and creed within Sunni Islam. Mu’tazilite rationalism and Hanbalite literalism, using the rationalistic methods championed by Mu’tazilites to defend most tenets of the traditionalist doctrine. Hanbalite and some Shafi’i scholars, who ostensibly persisted in their rejection of kalam, although they often resorted to rationalistic arguments themselves, even while claiming to rely on the literal text of scripture. Its popularity manifested itself repeatedly from late ninth to eleventh centuries, when crowds shouted down preachers who publicly expounded rationalistic theology. 11th century encouraged Ash’ari theologians in order to counterbalance caliphal traditionalism, inviting a number of them to preach in Baghdad over the years.
One such occasion led to five months of rioting in the city in 1077. While Ash’arism and Maturidism are often called the Sunni “orthodoxy”, traditionalist theology has thrived alongside it, laying rival claims to be the orthodox Sunni faith. He who claims the opposite is a Jahmite, an infidel. And he who says, ‘The Qur’an is God’s Speech,’ and stops there without adding ‘uncreated,’ speaks even more abominably than the former”. Rational proofs, unless they are Qur’anic in origin, are considered nonexistent and wholly invalid. However, this was not always the case as a number of Atharis delved into kalam, whether or not they described it as such. Ibn Qudama harshly rebuked theology as one of the worst of all heresies.
He characterized its partisans, its theologians, as innovators and heretics who had betrayed and deviated from the simple and pious faith of the early Muslims. The theologians are intensely hated in this world, and they will be tortured in the next. The Atharis staunchly affirm the existence of the attributes of God and consider all of them to be equally eternal. According to this method, one should adhere to the sacred text of the Qur’an and believe that it is the truth, without trying to explain it through figurative explanation.
Apostle and the confirmation of the Qur’an”. It is possible to believe in them without the knowledge of their intended sense”. In some cases, Athari scholars espoused extreme anthropomorphic views, but they do not generally represent the Athari movement as a whole. They believe that Iman resides in the heart, in the utterance of the tongue and in the action of the limbs. This body of scholars continued to reject theology in favor of strict textualism well after Ash’arism had infiltrated the Sunni schools of law.