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National geographic gender issue pdf

The concept of the gender wage gap has received national geographic gender issue pdf attention in the literature, particularly in the U. Many analyses put forth various factors that explain the variation in wages across genders.

However, we extend this knowledge to link the gender wage gap with the theoretical framework of intersectionality. Specifically, the current analysis focuses on the intersection between gender, race, and region to explain the variation in gender wage gap across the United States. Through difference in means tests as well as linear regression, we show that region has an independent effect on explaining the gap in pay between men and women. We employ data from the National Women’s Law Center that quantifies the wage gap for each state for various racial groups.

By employing this type of data, it allows us to move beyond the existence of the wage gap and analyze the effect of region as well as offer a test of the intersectionality argument. Findings show that region does play a role in the wage gap, even when accounting for economic and demographic characteristics of the state. Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution. This article is about persons lacking state affiliation.

However, not all refugees are stateless, and many persons who are stateless have never crossed an international border. Conflicting nationality laws are one of many causes of statelessness. Indian citizenship, then the child would be stateless since India only confers citizenship to children born to at least one Indian parent. Although many states allow the acquisition of nationality through parental descent irrespective of where the child is born, some do not allow female citizens to confer nationality to their children. There are 27 countries in the world that do not grant equal rights to women in passing on their nationality. This can result in statelessness when the father is stateless, unknown, or otherwise unable to confer nationality. Algerian nationality to all children born in or outside Algeria to an Algerian mother or father.

An important measure to prevent statelessness at birth provides nationality to children born in a territory who would otherwise be stateless. In most large-scale statelessness situations, statelessness is a result of discrimination. This violates international laws against discrimination. 1 October 2014 that the “deprivation of citizenship on the basis of race, colour, descent, or national or ethnic origin is a breach of States’ obligations to ensure non-discriminatory enjoyment of the right to nationality”. Some people become stateless when their state of nationality ceases to exist, or when the territory on which they live comes under the control of another state. People may also become stateless as a result of administrative and practical problems, especially when they are from a group whose nationality is questioned.

Individuals might be entitled to citizenship but unable to undertake the necessary procedural steps. In disruptive conflict or post-conflict situations, many people find that difficulties in completing simple administrative procedures are exacerbated. Such obstacles may affect the ability of individuals to complete procedures such as birth registration, fundamental to the prevention of statelessness in children. Whilst birth registration alone does not confer citizenship on a child, the documentation of place of birth and parentage is instrumental in proving the link between an individual and a state for the acquisition of nationality. 2013 that 230 million children under the age of 5 have not been registered. Many millions of people live their entire lives without documents, without their nationality ever being questioned.