Further documentation is available here. Muscle injuries remain one of the most common injuries in sport, muscle injuries in sports mueller pdf despite this, there is little consensus on how to either effectively describe or determine the prognosis of a specific muscle injury. Numerous approaches to muscle classification and grading of medicine have been applied over the last century, but over the last decade the limitations of historic approaches have been recognized.
As a consequence, in the past 10 years, clinical research groups have begun to question the historic approaches and reconsider the way muscle injuries are classified and described. Using a narrative approach, this manuscript describes several of the most recent attempts to classify and grade muscle injuries and highlights the relative strengths and weaknesses of each system. While each of the new classification and grading systems have strengths, there remains little consensus on a system that is both comprehensive and evidence based. Few of the currently identified features within the grading systems have relevance to accurately determining prognosis.
Peer review under responsibility of Shanghai University of Sport. 2017 Production and hosting by Elsevier B. Athletic competition has long been a known source of spinal injuries. United States are related to sports activities. The sports activities that have the highest risk of catastrophic spinal injuries are football, ice hockey, wrestling, diving, skiing, snowboarding, rugby, and cheerleading.
Axial compression forces to the top of the head can lead to cervical fracture and quadriplegia in any sport. It is critical for any medical personnel responsible for athletes in team sports to have a plan for stabilization and transfer of an athlete who sustains a cervical spine injury. Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution. This is a good article.
Follow the link for more information. Some symptoms may begin immediately, while other may appear days after the injury. It is not unusual for symptoms to last up to four weeks. The mechanism may involve either a direct blow to the head or forces elsewhere on the body that are transmitted to the head.
Treatment generally involves physical and cognitive rest for a day or two with gradual return to activities. Prolonged periods of rest may worsen outcomes. Concussion are estimated to affect more than 6 per 1,000 people a year. It is the most common type of traumatic brain injury. Males and young adults are most commonly affected. Another concussion before the symptoms of a prior concussion have resolved is associated with worse outcomes.
Concussion is associated with a variety of symptoms, which typically occur rapidly after the injury. Early symptoms usually subside within days or weeks. The number and type of symptoms any one individual suffers varies widely. Concussive convulsions are thought to result from temporary loss or inhibition of motor function, and are not associated either with epilepsy or with more serious structural damage. Loss of consciousness may occur, but is not necessarily correlated with the severity of the concussion if it is brief. Common symptoms in concussed children include restlessness, lethargy, and irritability. Rotational force is key in concussion.
More severe impacts, or the forces associated with rapid acceleration, may not be absorbed by this cushion. Forces may cause linear, rotational, or angular movement of the brain, or a combination of them. In rotational movement, the head turns around its center of gravity, and in angular movement it turns on an axis not through its center of gravity. As one example, in animal models, after an initial increase in glucose metabolism, there is a subsequent reduced metabolic state which may persist for up to four weeks after injury. Thus cells get less glucose than they normally do, which causes an “energy crisis”.
Axonal damage has been found in the brains of concussion sufferers who died from other causes, but inadequate blood flow to the brain due to other injuries may have contributed. Findings from a study of the brains of deceased NFL athletes who received concussions suggest that lasting damage is done by such injuries. This damage, the severity of which increases with the cumulative number of concussions sustained, can lead to a variety of other health issues. The debate over whether concussion is a functional or structural phenomenon is ongoing. Structural damage has been found in the mildly traumatically injured brains of animals, but it is not clear whether these findings would apply to humans. Such changes in brain structure could be responsible for certain symptoms such as visual disturbances, but other sets of symptoms, especially those of a psychological nature, are more likely to be caused by reversible pathophysiological changes in cellular function that occur after concussion, such as alterations in neurons’ biochemistry. These reversible changes could also explain why dysfunction is frequently temporary.
Step training program, the pathology of a concussion seems to start with the disruption of the cell membrane of nerve cells. In situations where limited or short — long martial arts development process Lee went through. Descriptions of the condition, myogenic satellite cells: physiology to molecular biology”. May occur in very rare cases. Well muscled back of an Olympic Gymnast. Such changes in brain structure could be responsible for certain symptoms such as visual disturbances, conn: Yale University Press.