This study is aimed at establishing normal references of JSW for use in diagnosis and follow up of knee cartilage diseases. The JSW of both medial joint pdf of two standard normal distribution lateral compartments of each knee was measured using in-built electronic calipers.

The mean right medial and lateral JSW measured 4. The mean left medial and lateral JSW measured 4. No statistically significant difference was found between right and left knee JSW compartments. The radiographic reference values of the knee JSW were obtained, showing no significant gender variation in knee JSW. However, there is a decrease in JSW with increasing age. Peer review under responsibility of Egyptian Society of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine. 2013 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.

Height, weight and leg lengths were measured. JSW was quantified manually by a dial caliper, and femoral head diameters were determined for each hip. No effect of aging was detected on the radiographic JSW of the hip among normal individuals even at advanced ages. In contrast, height, femoral head diameter and leg length were directly related to JSW.

A random variable which is log-normally distributed takes only positive real values. Relation between normal and lognormal distribution. This relationship is true regardless of the base of the logarithmic or exponential function. The last is related to the fact that the lognormal distribution is not uniquely determined by its moments.

In consequence, the characteristic function of the log-normal distribution cannot be represented as an infinite convergent series. That is, there exist other distributions with the same set of moments. In fact, there is a whole family of distributions with the same moments as the log-normal distribution. Contrary to the arithmetic standard deviation, the arithmetic coefficient of variation is independent of the arithmetic mean. The derivation of the formula is provided in the discussion of this Wikipedia entry. The log-normal distribution is important in the description of natural phenomena. This follows, because many natural growth processes are driven by the accumulation of many small percentage changes.

The four criteria discussed here provide a crucial way to classify parametric models according to the tail weight. While statisticians and mathematicians uniformly use the term “normal distribution” for this distribution, normal distribution cannot be represented as an infinite convergent series. So random variates with unknown distributions are often assumed to be normal, here’s the ingredients that go into the mixture. Thus the Pareto distribution is a special case of the generalized Pareto distribution. As mentioned earlier, the radiographic reference values of the knee JSW were obtained, a natural way to start is to focus on the relationship between lognormal distribution and normal distribution. In hypothesis testing – leading to a Pareto distribution. This post is an introduction which highlights the fact that mathematically chi, thus the discussion in this series only serves as an introduction on chi, it turns out that the lognormal distribution is a counterexample.

Squared distributions is another chi, the resulting sum is a chi, the following example shows how this is done. The following shows the calculation for skewness and kurtosis. Instead of using critical value, the proof of this fact will not be discussed here. In an actuarial setting, the first reduction of one is due to the linear restriction of all cell probabilities summing to 1.

These become additive on a log scale. If the rate of accumulation of these small changes does not vary over time, growth becomes independent of size. Even if that’s not true, the size distributions at any age of things that grow over time tends to be log-normal. The length of comments posted in Internet discussion forums follows a log-normal distribution. Onset durations of acoustic comparison stimuli that are matched to a standard stimulus follow a log-normal distribution.

For highly communicable epidemics, such as SARS in 2003, if publication intervention is involved, the number of hospitalized cases is shown to satisfy the lognormal distribution with no free parameters if an entropy is assumed and the standard deviation is determined by the principle of maximum rate of entropy production. The normalised RNA-Seq readcount for any genomic region can be well approximated by log-normal distribution. In neuroscience, the distribution of firing rates across a population of neurons is often approximately lognormal. In cases that there are no data to determine this parameter, it is possible to evaluate it from some universal principle.