This article is about control system book pdf free download theory in engineering. SP-PV error, is applied as feedback to generate a control action to bring the controlled process variable to the same value as the set point. On this is based the advanced type of automation that revolutionized manufacturing, aircraft, communications and other industries. As the general theory of feedback systems, control theory is useful wherever feedback occurs.

Control theory is concerned only with closed loop control. A good example of this is a central heating boiler controlled only by a timer, so that heat is applied for a constant time, regardless of the temperature of the building. This generates a controller output to maintain the building at the desired temperature by switching the boiler on and off. A closed loop controller, therefore, has a feedback loop which ensures the controller exerts a control action to manipulate the process variable to be the same as the “Reference input” or “set point”.

For this reason, closed loop controllers are also called feedback controllers. The definition of a closed loop control system according to the British Standard Institution is ‘a control system possessing monitoring feedback, the deviation signal formed as a result of this feedback being used to control the action of a final control element in such a way as to tend to reduce the deviation to zero. A primitive way to implement cruise control is simply to lock the throttle position when the driver engages cruise control. However, if the cruise control is engaged on a stretch of flat road, then the car will travel slower going uphill and faster when going downhill. As a result, the controller cannot compensate for changes acting on the car, like a change in the slope of the road. As the sensed speed drops below the reference, the difference increases, the throttle opens, and engine power increases, speeding up the vehicle.

In this way, the controller dynamically counteracts changes to the car’s speed. In some systems, closed-loop and open-loop control are used simultaneously. This is shown in the figure. This kind of controller is a closed-loop controller or feedback controller. Stability can often be ensured using only the proportional term. The derivative term is used to provide damping or shaping of the response. With this tuning in this example, the system output follows the reference input exactly.

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