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Co occurring substance use dmh pdf

Corexit is typically applied by aerial spraying or spraying from ships directly onto an oil slick. In addition to spraying the dispersant onto the surface slick, it was used in an untested, off-label manner when BP injected it at the broken well-head, roughly 5,000 feet below the surface. Researchers continue to examine the effects and effectiveness of Corexit. Corexit has been shown to exert a synergistic co occurring substance use dmh pdf when mixed with oil, increasing its toxicity.

Nalco Company, an indirect subsidiary of Ecolab. Dispersants are mixtures of surfactants and solvents that are commonly used to break up floating oil slicks into small droplets, which are submerged underwater. This reduces shoreline accumulation but increases the amount of oil underwater. This also increases the surface area of the oil and, in theory, accelerates the destruction of oil by naturally occurring bacteria. Dispersants are themselves a form of pollution that can be toxic to marine life, and the increased activity of bacteria from their presence can deplete oxygen in nearby waters, causing further harm to marine life. There are important trade-offs that must be considered in their use, such as the relative level of toxicity of the dispersant versus the relative toxicity of the spilled oil, to ensure that dispersant use mitigates an oil spill rather than to make the problem worse. Corexit products have been used in oil spill response activities since the late 1960s.

Corexit 9527 is one of the first modern concentrate dispersants and has been in use since the mid 1970s. Corexit 9500 was designed to replace Corexit 9527. In 2002, Corexit 9527 and Corexit 9500 were the only two chemical dispersants stockpiled in large quantities in the U. The incident harmed marine life and triggered the first significant international public discussions regarding chemical dispersants’ toxicity including the costs and benefits of its deployment. 125 barrels of it was sprayed onto the slick by aircraft over two days, after which the slick was dispersed.

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Corexit 7664’s point of difference was described by research chemist Dr Edward Corino to be its water base, where previous dispersants had been hydrocarbon-based and highly toxic. Corexit for the purpose of dispersing oil spills. Corexit and another chemical dispersant called Cold Clean on and beneath an oil platform off the Louisiana coast during a spill in the Gulf of Mexico. August 1984 but was said to have failed. Gulf of Mexico ecosystem” stemming from the use of Corexit. France, Germany, and the Netherlands have provisions to use Corexit 9500 in an oil spill.

Belgium and Norway do not have lists of approved dispersants, but Belgium has a stockpile of Corexit 9527. The UK and Denmark keep lists of approved dispersants and have not approved of Corexit. Sweden does not use dispersant at all. Corexit 9500 was listed on the U. EPA National Contingency Plan Product Schedule and authority and direction for its use was provided by responding federal agencies.

Nalco immediately provided available quantities of Corexit and increased production to supply the product to BP’s subsidiaries. BP could not find an alternative, to provide a report on the alternative dispersants investigated and reasons for their rejection. BP took the latter option, sending its report the next day. BP’s response to dispersant alternatives was judged to be deficient by both the EPA and the US Coast Guard, requiring EPA to perform its own analysis on the relative toxicity of dispersants. Their peer-reviewed conclusions on August 2, 2010 found that Corexit 9500A was generally neither more nor less toxic than the other available dispersants, and that dispersant-oil mixtures were not generally more nor less toxic to test species than oil alone. On July 15, 2010, BP announced that it had capped the leaking well, and the application of dispersants by the response effort ceased shortly thereafter.

The total used in the event was 1. Many scientists believe there is no safe level of exposure to a carcinogen. Reproductive Hazard: 2-Butoxy Ethanol may damage the developing fetus. According to the Alaska Community Action on Toxics, the use of Corexit during the spill caused people “respiratory, nervous system, liver, kidney and blood disorders”.

Corexit is banned in the United Kingdom due to concerns about possible adverse health effects on people using it. The manufacturer’s safety data sheet states “No toxicity studies have been conducted on this product,” and later concludes “The potential human hazard is: Low. According to the manufacturer’s website, workers applying Corexit should wear breathing protection and work in a ventilated area. Corexit 9500 and 9527 are either similarly toxic or 10 to 20 times more toxic.

In a preliminary EPA study of eight different dispersants, Corexit 9500 was found to be less toxic to some marine life than other dispersants and to break down within weeks, rather than settling to the bottom of the ocean or collecting in the water. None of the eight dispersants tested were “without toxicity”, according to an EPA administrator. During the 2010 spill, the ecological effect of mixing the dispersants with oil was unknown, as was the toxicity of the breakdown products of the dispersant. EPA was not prepared to responsibly authorize BP’s use of Corexit, but did so anyway. He noted that manufacturers could nominate themselves to EPA’s list of approved dispersants. Although they had to provide data on both efficacy and toxicity, there was no official toxicity limit to bar approval. Nalco spokesman Charlie Pajor said that oil mixed with Corexit is “more toxic to marine life, but less toxic to life along the shore and animals at the surface” because the dispersant allows the oil to stay submerged below the surface of the water.