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According to the third law of thermodynamics, the entropy of a system in internal equilibrium approaches a constant independent of phase as the absolute temperature tends to zero. This constant value is taken to be zero for a non-degenerate ground state, in accord with statistical mechanics. Independence of phase is illustrated by extrapolation due to Fermi of the entropy of gray and white tin as the temperature is reduced to absolute zero. The third law is based on the postulate of Nernst to explain empirical rules for equilibrium of chemical reactions as absolute zero is approached.

As a consequence of the third law, the following quantities vanish at absolute zero: heat capacity, coefficient of thermal expansion, and ratio of thermal expansion to isothermal compressibility. This article has not been cited. The developed architecture allows to prototype symbolic and numerical representations of materials by starting from analytic models, tabulated experimental data, or Thermo-Calc data files. These constructions are based on the addition of arbitrary energy contributions that range from the traditional thermochemical to mechanical and surface tension.

Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution. Screen reader users, click the load entire article button to bypass dynamically loaded article content. Please note that Internet Explorer version 8. Click the View full text link to bypass dynamically loaded article content. According to the third law of thermodynamics, the entropy of a system in internal equilibrium approaches a constant independent of phase as the absolute temperature tends to zero. This constant value is taken to be zero for a non-degenerate ground state, in accord with statistical mechanics. Independence of phase is illustrated by extrapolation due to Fermi of the entropy of gray and white tin as the temperature is reduced to absolute zero.

The third law is based on the postulate of Nernst to explain empirical rules for equilibrium of chemical reactions as absolute zero is approached. As a consequence of the third law, the following quantities vanish at absolute zero: heat capacity, coefficient of thermal expansion, and ratio of thermal expansion to isothermal compressibility. This article has not been cited. The developed architecture allows to prototype symbolic and numerical representations of materials by starting from analytic models, tabulated experimental data, or Thermo-Calc data files.

These constructions are based on the addition of arbitrary energy contributions that range from the traditional thermochemical to mechanical and surface tension. Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution. Screen reader users, click the load entire article button to bypass dynamically loaded article content. Please note that Internet Explorer version 8. Click the View full text link to bypass dynamically loaded article content. According to the third law of thermodynamics, the entropy of a system in internal equilibrium approaches a constant independent of phase as the absolute temperature tends to zero.

This constant value is taken to be zero for a non-degenerate ground state, in accord with statistical mechanics. Independence of phase is illustrated by extrapolation due to Fermi of the entropy of gray and white tin as the temperature is reduced to absolute zero. The third law is based on the postulate of Nernst to explain empirical rules for equilibrium of chemical reactions as absolute zero is approached. As a consequence of the third law, the following quantities vanish at absolute zero: heat capacity, coefficient of thermal expansion, and ratio of thermal expansion to isothermal compressibility. This article has not been cited. The developed architecture allows to prototype symbolic and numerical representations of materials by starting from analytic models, tabulated experimental data, or Thermo-Calc data files.