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Osgood’s continuing contributions to intercultural communication and far beyond! In memory of Charles E. Fifth, his efforts in inter-ethnic and inter-national conflict resolutions and peace: Sixth, his impact on the theories and methodologies in inter-cultural awareness and trainings. Finally, his continuing contributions far beyond the above six areas are documented in terms of the authors’ own long-time endeavors in scientific research in intra- and inter-cultural communications theories, analytic methodologies, and contemporary substantive social issues, ranging from conflicts, adult intimate relationships, to youth communications and developments. It can be ascertained that Osgood’s contributions will continue in both social contexts and academic disciplines as evidenced by his life-long personal contacts in communications with international colleagues and his administrative leadership of the world renowned, interdisciplines-based Institute of Communications Research for over two decades at the University of Illinois. Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution.
Portions of the paper were given as presentations by the first and second authors at the 2005 meetings of the International Academy for Intercultural Research. The muzzle imprint mark in contact shots is usually regarded as a patterned pressure abrasion depicting the barrel end as well as adjacent constructional components of the weapon. Due to parching after exposure to air, the affected skin assumes a brown color, especially along the contours of the impacting structures. Apart from this well-known type of epidermal damage, the imprint mark may also be formed by intradermal hemorrhages.
In some cases, these intracutaneous bleedings manifest themselves as circular, curved or straight reddish lines mirroring the surface relief of the weapon’s muzzle end. In 3 cases, the muzzle imprint mark exclusively consisted of intracutaneous bruises surrounding the bullet entrance hole. In 14 cases, the muzzle imprint was composed of both excoriations and intradermal hematomas. A number of alternatives to expendable rockets have been proposed.
As a result, launch costs are a large percentage of the cost of all space endeavors. If launch can be made cheaper the total cost of space missions will be reduced. LEO by other means has the potential of greatly reducing the cost of getting to orbit. References in this column apply to entire row unless specifically replaced. All monetary values in un-inflated dollars based on reference publication date except as noted. CY2008 estimate from description in 1993 reference system. Subject to very rapid increase via bootstrapping.
In this usage, the term “static” is intended to convey the understanding that the structural portion of the system has no internal moving parts. 36,000 km, or 22,369 miles, objects released at such height could then drift away with minimal power and would be in a circular orbit. The original concept envisioned by Tsiolkovsky was a compression structure. Building a compression structure from the ground up proved an unrealistic task as there was no material in existence with enough compressive strength to support its own weight under such conditions. Other ideas use very tall compressive towers to reduce the demands on launch vehicles. 2, though construction challenges, including wind loading, would apply.
Tethers can also be used for changing orbit once in space. Proposals for skyhooks include designs that employ tethers spinning at hypersonic speed for catching high speed payloads or high altitude aircraft and placing them in orbit. Diagram of a space elevator. At the bottom of the tall diagram is the Earth as viewed from high above the North Pole. About six Earth-radii above the Earth an arc is drawn with the same center as the Earth.
The arc depicts the level of geosynchronous orbit. About twice as high as the arc and directly above the Earth’s center, a counterweight is depicted by a small square. A line depicting the space elevator’s cable connects the counterweight to the equator directly below it. The system’s center of mass is described as above the level of geosynchronous orbit. The center of mass is shown roughly to be about a quarter of the way up from the geosynchronous arc to the counterweight. The bottom of the cable is indicated to be anchored at the equator.
A climber is depicted by a small rounded square. The climber is shown climbing the cable about one third of the way from the ground to the arc. Another note indicates that the cable rotates along with the Earth’s daily rotation, and remains vertical. A space elevator is a proposed type of space transportation system. As the planet rotates, the centrifugal force at the upper end of the tether counteracts gravity, and keeps the cable taut.
Vehicles can then climb the tether and reach orbit without the use of rocket propulsion. Such a cable could be made out of any material able to support itself under tension by tapering the cable’s diameter sufficiently quickly as it approached the Earth’s surface. With conventional materials, the taper ratio would need to be very large, increasing the total launch mass to a fiscally infeasible degree. Their measured strengths are high compared to their linear densities. They hold promise as materials to make an Earth-based space elevator possible. KITE Launcher — transferring momentum to the vehicle.