A typical use of dither is converting a greyscale image to black and white, such that the density of black dots in the new image approximates the average grey level in the original. Engineers realized that the vibration from the bob katz mastering audio the art and the science pdf reduced the error from sticky moving parts. Instead of moving in short jerks, they moved more continuously.
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Small vibrating motors were built into the computers, and their vibration was called dither from the Middle English verb “didderen,” meaning “to tremble. Today, when you tap a mechanical meter to increase its accuracy, you are applying dither, and modern dictionaries define dither as a highly nervous, confused, or agitated state. In minute quantities, dither successfully makes a digitization system a little more analog in the good sense of the word. By 1964 dither was being used in the modern sense described in this article. Dither is often used in digital audio and video processing.
It is utilized in many different fields where digital processing and analysis are used. In some fields, especially where the receptor is sensitive to such artifacts, cyclical errors yield undesirable artifacts. In these fields introducing dither results in less determinable artifacts. The field of audio is a primary example of this. Random noise is typically less objectionable than the harmonic tones produced by limit cycles. Each coded value is a discrete step if a signal is quantized without using dither, there will be quantization distortion related to the original input signal In order to prevent this, the signal is “dithered”, a process that mathematically removes the harmonics or other highly undesirable distortions entirely, and that replaces it with a constant, fixed noise level.
In the end, the digital data must be reduced to 16 bits for pressing onto a CD and distributing. There are multiple ways to do this. Each of these methods, however, results in predictable and determinable errors in the result. Take for example a sine wave that, for some portion, matches the values above.
Every time the sine wave’s value hit 3. 2, the truncated result would be off by 0. 2, as in the sample data above. Every time the sine wave’s value hit 4. 0, there would be no error since the truncated result would be off by 0. The magnitude of this error changes regularly and repeatedly throughout the sine wave’s cycle.
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